# Partitions

Partitions are a categorical construction that we derive from sets and functions. Given a set A, you can think of all of the ways to partition A into parts. These ways of partitioning are isomorphic to equivalence relations R ⊆ A × A.

The first step is our Catlab imports

```
using Core: GeneratedFunctionStub
using Test
using Catlab, Catlab.Theories, Catlab.CategoricalAlgebra
import Catlab.Theories: compose
using DataStructures
using PrettyTables
PrettyTables.pretty_table(f::FinFunction, name::Symbol=:f) =
pretty_table(OrderedDict(:x=>1:length(dom(f)), Symbol("$(name)(x)")=>collect(f)))
using LaTeXStrings
```

## FinSet: the category of Finite Sets

In FinSet the objects are sets n = {1...n} and the morphisms are functions between finite sets. You can wrap a plain old Int into a finite set with the FinSet(n::Int) function. These sets will serve as the domain and codomains of our functions.

```
n = FinSet(3)
m = FinSet(4)
```

FinSet(4)

once you have some sets, you can define functions between them. A FinFunction from n to m, f:n→m, can be specified as an array of length n with elements from m.

```
f = FinFunction([2,4,3], n, m)
pretty_table(f)
```

┌───────┬───────┐ │ x │ f(x) │ │ Int64 │ Int64 │ ├───────┼───────┤ │ 1 │ 2 │ │ 2 │ 4 │ │ 3 │ 3 │ └───────┴───────┘

## Surjective maps

In order to use a map to represent a partition, we have to make sure that it is surjective. Given a FinFunction, we can compute the preimage of any element in its codomain.

```
preimage(f, 2)
preimage(f, 1)
```

Int64[]

If the preimage is empty, then there is no element in the domain that maps to that element of the codomain. This gives us a definition of surjective functions by asserting that all the preimages are nonempty. Julia note: !p is the predicate x ↦ ¬p(x), f.(A) applies f to all of the elements in A.

```
is_surjective(f::FinFunction) = all((!isempty).(preimage(f,i) for i in codom(f)))
is_surjective(f)
```

false

Our function f, wasn't surjective so it can't be used to induce a partition via its preimages. Let's try again,

```
g = FinFunction([1,2,3,3], m, n)
pretty_table(g, :g)
is_surjective(g)
```

true

# Refinements of a Partition

When defining partitions classically as A = ∪ₚ Aₚ with p ≠ r ⟹ Aₚ ≠ Aᵣ, it is not immediately obvious how to define comparisons between partitions. With the "a partition of A is a surjective map out of A" definition, the comparisons are obvious. The composition of surjective maps is surjective, so we can define the refinement order in terms of a diagram in Set.

You can see a graphical definition in quiver

```
using TikzCDs
triangle = L"""
A &&& Q \\
\\
&&& P
\arrow["h", two heads, from=1-4, to=3-4]
\arrow["f", two heads, from=1-1, to=1-4]
\arrow["g"', two heads, from=1-1, to=3-4]
""";
TikzCD(triangle, preamble=TikzCDs.Styles.Quiver)
```

Let's take a look at an example:

```
A = FinSet(4)
Q = FinSet(3)
P = FinSet(2)
f = FinFunction([1,2,3,3], A, Q)
g = FinFunction([1,1,2,2], A, P)
h = FinFunction([1,1,2], Q, P)
@test_throws ErrorException compose(g,h) #Catlab checks the domains match
pretty_table(compose(f,h), Symbol("(f⋅h)"))
compose(f,h) == g
```

true

This triangle commutes, so f is a refinement of g equivalently g is coarser than f.

```
h′ = FinFunction([1,1], P, FinSet(1))
pretty_table(f⋅h⋅h′, Symbol("f⋅h⋅h′"))
```

┌───────┬───────────┐ │ x │ f⋅h⋅h′(x) │ │ Int64 │ Int64 │ ├───────┼───────────┤ │ 1 │ 1 │ │ 2 │ 1 │ │ 3 │ 1 │ │ 4 │ 1 │ └───────┴───────────┘

### Properties of refinements

We can show that refinement gives us a preorder on partitions directly from the nice properties of surjective maps.

- Reflexive: Any partition is a refinement of itself.
- Transitive: If f ≤ g ≤ h as partitions, then f ≤ h

You can read these directly off the definition of refinements as a commutative triangle in the category of (Set, Surjections). You can edit this diagram in quiver

```
refinement = L"""
A &&& Q \\
\\
&&& P \\
\\
&&& {Q^\prime}
\arrow["h", from=1-4, to=3-4]
\arrow["f", two heads, from=1-1, to=1-4]
\arrow["g"', two heads, from=1-1, to=3-4]
\arrow["{h^\prime}", from=3-4, to=5-4]
\arrow["{f\cdot h\cdot h^\prime = g\cdot h^\prime}"', two heads, from=1-1, to=5-4]
""";
TikzCD(refinement, preamble=TikzCDs.Styles.Quiver)
```